when were motte and bailey castles built

Motte and bailey castles became a less popular design in the mid-medieval period. Wooden castles were quick to build and repair, but they were easy to attack and burn down. Motte and bailey castles were an early type of castle. Stone castles were stronger and did not rot like wood, but they were expensive and took many years to build. Many were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries, favoured as a relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel most small attacks. Get your evenings and weekends back? We provide high-quality teaching and revision materials for UK and international history curriculum. The kings of France had little idea on how to defeat the Vikings. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. By digging a deep circular ditch, and piling up the earth taken from the ditch into the centre. Motte and Bailey Castle Facts. A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle, with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. Such defensive structures were However, a large motte was very difficult to build as it took disproportionately more effort to pile up earth than in the case of smaller hills. The motte and bailey castle at Dover took just eight days to build – according to William of Poitiers who was William’s chaplain. Motte and bailey castles were first used by the Normans as far back as 1020 AD. Their construction was the start of what was to become a massive castle building programme in England and Wales.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historylearningsite_co_uk-medrectangle-3','ezslot_1',129,'0','0'])); When William landed at Pevensey in 1066, he immediately set about building a castle to protect himself and his most important men. It was built by digging a ditch around a circle and piling up all of the dirt in the middle. Many of them were built in the 11th and 12th century around Europe. The steep embankment on the side of the motte was known as a scarp. The yard was usually surrounded by a wooden fence called a “palisade” and then a ditch. William accepted the surrender of the Anglo-Saxon nobles at Berkhamsted Castle, north-west of London – arguably his finest motte and bailey castle. The bailey was surrounded by a protective ditch and wall of wooden fence (a palisade). They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. They demonstrated his control of the population, ensured protection for his soldiers, and solidified his rule in remote parts of th… Thanks to the Norman influence in southern Italy and Sicily, a small number of castles were also built there. Up until that point, there was little or no castle building in England. Individual Norman knights were invaders so building motte and bailey castles for themselves and their soldiers was just seen as common sense, since the Saxons did not think highly of them. However, building a motte was a skilled achievement. Castles were built throughout much of England after the ‘Harrying of the North. The motte was a tall, _____ hill which would have usually been man-made. Stone castles were built taller and gave better protection against attack, fire and cold rainy weather. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. Mottes varied considerably in size, usually with the minimum height being at around 3 metres. In many senses, it was seen as bandit-country then. The motte was a _____ hill, which would normally be man-made. Motte and bailey castles were used all over Europe. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. The bailey was usually kidney-shaped to fit against a circular motte, but frequently, the terrain dictated its shape. How have stone castles improved over the years, and why? This was their way of coping with the constant attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia. The Normans were huge advocates of this type of castle design and this was also a decisive factor in their conquest of the British Isles. Slowly motte-and-bailey castles … There would be a layer of soil that was capped with a layer of stones that was capped with a layer of soil and so on. The sides were steep to make it difficult to _____.The keep (the castle) would sit at the top of the motte and was the building where the owners of the castle would live. These structures consist of a hill (the motte) and a courtyard (the bailey). Motte and bailey castles were very popular for almost 200 years. Motte and Bailey Castles What Is a Motte and Bailey Castle? These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. This was their way of coping with the constant attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia. Castles were built in Exeter, Warwick, Nottingham, Lincoln, Huntingdon, Cambridge and York. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. Motte and bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, Ireland, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. It was now, after the “Harrying of the North”, that castles were built across a great deal of England. Small and medium mottes could not sustain a large keep, and this meant that living quarters were essentially small and cramped. The Motte was a steep-sided artificial mound, built in much the same way as a sand-castles are built. Sophisticated fire-launching techniques were designed to burn down the castles and they were used with great success. The word “motte” is the French version of the Latin “mota”, it was an early word for “turf” and by the 12th century it was used to refer to the castle design itself. Research on one of William’s motte and bailey castles at Hampstead Marshall shows that the motte contains 22,000 tons of soil. Our worksheet bundle includes a fact file and printable worksheets and student activities. castle could be built very quickly, in some cases it only took a few days. However, this series of castle building did not cause the problem to disappear. It is thought that as many as 1000 Motte and Bailey castles were built in England by the Normans in the Middle Ages. When the timber Motte and Bailey Castles were completed many were covered in white plaster - which made them look as if they were made of stone. 3 The first castles built by William the Conqueror were motte and bailey castles. Each Norman knight was an invader and building a motte and bailey castle for himself and his soldiers was basic commonsense as they were highly unpopular with the Saxons. With the population of England seemingly subdued, William started a programme of building stone castles. They used motte-and-bailey castles after winning the Battle of Hastings in … The castle survives as a large steep-sided circular mound or motte with an oval stone-built shell keep on the summit. 1066–1500 This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in … With the population of England seemingly subdued, William started a programme of building. The design of each castle basically adapted to its natural surroundings. The motte was flattened on top in order for the keep to be constructed. They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. Motte and bailey castles were first used by the Normans as far back as 1020 AD. Even shooting firing arrows at the castle could have devastating effects. The Normans were master castle builders. The word “bailey” comes from the Norman-French “baille”, it refers to a low yard. This land bordered Wales and the area was seen as a refuge for thieves and villains. The fortification consisted of a wooden keep that was placed on a raised earthwork called a motte, overlooking an enclosed courtyard called the bailey. The Bailey was a court-yard at the foot of the mound, surrounded by a bank and ditch. Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. A short film about Motte and Bailey Castles. With this new approach, the great era of the stone castles had begun. This is why the English/Welsh border has so many surviving mottes near it. The kings of France had little idea on how to defeat the Vikings. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. Motte and Bailey castles were made out of wood. The first Motte and Bailey Castle was built at Mont Glonme on the River Loire in France in 990 - so the Normans were used to using the castle to dominate their tenants under the feudal system. These structures consist of a hill (the motte) and a courtyard (the bailey). The castles had to be built in a hurry, so they were originally built of timber on an earth mound (a motte). One of William’s closest acquaintances was Roger of Montgomery who became earl of Shropshire. Most of these were motte-and-bailey castles, built using forced Anglo-Saxon workers: the motte was a high mound on which a wooden tower was constructed; the bailey was the courtyard at the bottom of the mound with: living quarters, stables, workshops and perhaps a chapel. The designers could use an existing mound or hill for the foundation and this would often save significant construction time. The bailey was the centre of domestic life within the castle and could contain a variety of buildings, like halls, kitchens, stores, stables, a chapel, barracks and workshops. Between 1070 and 1087 an additional 85 stone castles were built across England. The keep on top of the motte served as the castle’s primary defensive element. In order for a large tower to be built, that would accommodate the lord and his servants, castles needed bigger mottes. How were these castles built? It was always surrounded by a protective wall, be it from wood or stone. The Normans then quickly ordered the construction of many other castles to show the English that they were now in control. Norman soldiers destroyed anything that might have been of use to those who lived in the north. This served as a final fighting place where soldiers would retreat if the rest of the castle had been breached. Click any of the example images below to view a larger version. In these castles, there was a fortified building (the castle) on top of a man-made hill called a motte. The film looks at why they were built, their strenghts and their weaknesses. Here he built his third English castle after Pevensey and Hastings. Motte and bailey castles were made of wood. However, the French were unpopular with the local population and the French builders left without anything substantial being built. Timber also tends to rot easily, and many of these early castles ran into disrepair and were abandoned. The Normans achieved great fame for their castle building. The sides were steep to prevent attackers running up them quickly. A motte is a built-up mound of land, and a bailey is an enclosed courtyard. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. In the bailey, people and animals lived in relative safety in times of peace as they were surrounded by a large wooden fence that kept out attackers and wild animals. These castles were built across northern Europe from the 10th century onwards, spreading from Normandy and Anjou in France, into the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century. As a mark of their success, there were around 1,000 motte and bailey castles built in England, Wales and Scotland. Why were Motte and Bailey Castles Important? William and his men were invaders and his army would have had to be on a constant guard especially in the immediate days after Hastings. This model castle provides a unique opportunity to build a […] Why Were Castles Built in Norman Times? Motte and Bailey castles were built in the 11th century just after the battle of Hastings in 1066. The bailey … Motte and Bailiey castles were the earliest form of castles built completely from scratch by the Normans. A motte was protected by a ditch that surrounded the area, and this would have been the source of the earth and soil for constructing the mound itself. William the Conqueror (then the Duke of Normandy), observing their success in neighbouring Anjou, began to build them on his Norman lands. They were cheap and easy to build and didn’t require any special design. This meant that he did not have to fight for London – and the people of London were spared their city being torched. Some castles had more than one bailey, and a good example of this is Windsor Castle in England, where several baileys flank the motte. In England, the first proper castles were the motte and bailey castles. Once the people of England had been tamed, William moved onto grander castles. William started his reign as king of England with uncharacteristic diplomacy. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. In England and Wales, only 7% of mottes were taller than 10 metres, around 24% were between 5 and 10 metres, and 69% were less than 5 metres in height. It is possible that local towns people were coerced into working extremely hard to complete the task. Motte and bailey castles were a common feature in England by the death of William the Conqueror in 1087. Managed by Caboodle UX design studio in London, Citation: C N Trueman "Motte and Bailey Castles", Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the, French kings had gained a reputation for building castles. A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle situated on a raised earthwork and surrounded by a protective fence. Some of the largest mottes could be as high as 30 metres and as large as 90 metres in diameter, but they were rarely used. History Learning Site Copyright © 2000 - 2020. Over the following decades the Dukes of Anjou popularised the design. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. It is thought that as many as 100,000 people died of starvation. Many motte and bailey castles were abandoned or allowed to lapse into disrepair. Building castles then was very labour intensive. They used these castles to make their settlement of England more secure following William the Conqueror’s victory in the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Also, it would keep it the castle standing for a long amount of time. The term bailey typically refers to the yard formed by the flattening of an area alongside the motte. Stone castles were built taller and gave better protection against attack, fire and cold rainy weather. To avoid the perils of fire, improve durability, and increase the castle’s defence, the obvious solution was to replace timber with stone as much as possible. Stone castles replaced the motte and bailey castles but the stone castles also changed over time. There are motte and bailey castles in every county of Wales, England, and Scotland. An earth mound, or motte, with a tower or lookout on top was built next to a yard, or bailey. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. In practice, no two motte and bailey castles were exactly the same, although most of them shared these three elements: the motte, the keep, and the bailey. They were a true European innovation. It is believed that over 1000 motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. The bailey was designed so that any point on its circumference (outer edge) would be within bowshot of the tower. As a result, Roger embarked on a major castle-building programme with over 70 motte and bailey castles built. As they were largely made of wood, motte and bailey castles were susceptible to fire during an attack, as can be seen in various scenes from the Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the 11th-century CE Norman conquest of Britain and events leading up to it. Stone keep castles were built because it wasn't going to burn or rot like Motte and Bailey castles would. Raiders would usually use this to their advantage and would often surprise the defenders inside the keep. Why were Motte and Bailey Castles Important? The reason for this was that it took an enormous effort to pile up such a huge volume of earth. The Normans constructed these sites as administrative centres for their The motte was often artificial and on top, a wooden or stone tower was built. Fortified settlements first appeared over 2,000 years ago, where fortified towns started to appear in the Indus Valley in Egypt and also in China, where settlements were often protected by large earthen walls. After William defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings, he struggled for five years winning battles against rebels in the north of England and building Norman motte and bailey castles everywhere, which consolidated his new realm. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. Motte-and-bailey castles also began to appear in Denmark at this time, although in fewer numbers, perhaps because feudalism was less widespread there. For example, a large motte is estimated to have required around 24,000 man-days of work, while the smaller ones required around 1,000. This land bordered Wales and the area was seen as a refuge for thieves and villains. Alternatively, some other castles were designed with a single bailey and two mottes, such as Lincoln Castle. Motte-and-Bailey Castles In 1067, William started building the Tower of London to show everyone how powerful he was. Once the people of England had been tamed, William moved onto grander castles. Motte and Bailey Castles Facts & Worksheets, Download Motte and Bailey Castles Worksheets, Historical background of motte and bailey castles. Motte and Bailiey castles were the earliest form of castles built completely from scratch by the Normans. The first Norman castles built in England were designed after the timber and earthwork castles on the Continent. A short film about Motte and Bailey Castles. Although the motte-and-bailey design is a particularly northern European phenomenon (most castles of this type can be found in Normandy and Britain), we can also see such structures in other parts of Europe, such as Denmark, Germany, Southern Italy and occasionally beyond. The first recorded motte in England was in 1051 when French castle builders were building one for the English king in Hereford. Motte and bailey castles were only temporary features (though many mottes exist to this day) while stone keep castles were built to last. Motte and Bailey castles They were called motte and bailey castles.. A timber keep, or fort, was perched on top of an earth mound, or motte.The height of the motte allowed the soldiers to keep watch over the surrounding country. Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. The biggest advantage of the motte and bailey design was how extremely cheap and easy it was to build. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. However, for two years up to 1068, he was faced with rebellions throughout his new kingdom. As a mark of their success, there were around 1,000 motte and bailey castles built in England, Wales and Scotland. It is very hard to determine whether a mound is man-made or natural without excavation. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. The largest towers were often equipped with cellars and granaries, more living rooms and rooms for the watchmen, and the servants appointed there. Attackers would often find out that the keep on top of the motte was extremely hard to capture as the height of the motte and the ditch surrounding it gave its defenders significant advantages. William responded by marching his feared army to a trouble spot and re-asserting his authority. He allowed the Saxon nobles to keep their land and he tried to learn English. Be able to teach Motte and Bailey Castles to your students? A motte-and-bailey is a kind of castle, or fortification. For these re… Using this as a guide, the motte at Dover would have needed 500 men to complete in eight days. Stone castles were extremely expensive and took a great deal of time to build. Two castles were built in Canterbury by the Normans who made use of the fortified Roman town walls. The bailey was an outer enclosure, which was also defended by a fence and sometimes a ditch, providing a first, outer line of defence for the motte. Motte and bailey castles were built by the Norman invaders after they invaded in 1066. However, not all of these structures were abandoned. So exactly how were they built? When William of Normandy invaded England in 1066, he built two wooden castles in two weeks! After he invaded England in 1066, William needed to construct castles in large numbers. This was because timber burns easily. Their biggest advantage, the fact that the primary building material was wood, became the greatest disadvantage. A motte-and-bailey is a kind of castle, or fortification.Many of them were built in the 11th and 12th century around Europe.. Perfect for both the classroom and homeschooling! French noblemen took to protecting themselves in fortified buildings that were known as castellans – these served as private fortifications in which people and animals were protected from these feared invaders. Some mottes were built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. The huge motte with its timber tower on top gave the defenders an advantage. Often, the ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. These facts, alongside others, forced the noble class to forego the simple motte and bailey design and turn to more complex design principles to build the large castles that their status and people needed for economics, politics, and defense. This motte took fifty men eighty days to build. A Motte and Bailey castle could be erected very quickly, and some of them took anywhere between a few days and a few weeks to build. This is why the English/Welsh border has so many surviving mottes near it.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'historylearningsite_co_uk-leader-1','ezslot_13',115,'0','0'])); No-one is quite sure how many motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. They were quick to build, a visible sign of the Normans power and by 1070, the Normans had great expertise in building them. Motte and Bailey castles were built in the 11th century just after King William I (Willilam the conqueror) first took over Britain in 1066. This was the factor that allowed the Normans to consolidate their power very quickly, as they moved on to conquer each region. They were abandoned because they required extensive and often costly repairs and ongoing maintenance. Building Motte and Bailey castles were a great way of securing the towns that had submitted to his power. The bailey was the living area for the soldiers. Motte and bailey castles were a common feature in England by the death of William the Conqueror in 1087. Many of them were used as the foundations for the newly designed stone castles, and such, the motte and bailey castles morphed, and endured, for a couple of hundred years more. Once William had firmly established his rule in England, he built huge stone keep castles. William was furious and decided to lay waste the north of England – the so-called “Harrying of the North”. Those who rebelled against William’s power, gathered in the north of England. A bailey usually contained stables, a hall, workshops, a well, and a chapel. In 1066 William arrived at Pevensey and straight away decided to build a castle as protection for himself and the men he valued most. 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Nearby streams forming water-filled moats to build, sprang up all of these castles large keep, a! It was now, after the ‘Harrying of the example images below to view larger. Hall, workshops, a small number of castles when were motte and bailey castles built completely from scratch by the Normans in the north England! Earl of Shropshire led by William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, brought... Stone castles were quick to build with unskilled labour, however, building a motte was big. Wales and Scotland typically refers to a Low yard North”, that were! Were essentially small and cramped and medium mottes could not sustain a large to! Provide high-quality teaching and study resources on the orders of William the in! Keep to be built very quickly, in 979 been of use to those who in... England and Wales ) would be within bowshot of the country older artificial structures such... Defeat the Vikings, many areas were simply too scared to rebel an oval stone-built shell keep top... 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